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     April 2, 2014

 
 

  Vietnamese  

 
  https://www.amazon.com/dp/B00JJC0CSA  
 

 

GENERAL MATTER – ENEGY INTERACTION THEORY

Author: Do Duc Luong

Translate: Hanoi Transco

    

  CONTENTS

A.  General matter – energy interaction theory

I. Some assumptions

II. Forms of microscopic and macroscopic interactions

B. Some consequences

I. Defining size of microscopic matter particles

II. The nature of inertia

III. Explanation on substance constitution principle

IV. Explanation on elliptical orbit of planets around the star

V. The nature of neutrino

VI. Prediction on the constitution of dark matter

VII. Explanation on expansion acceleration of the universe which rejects the existence of dark energy

 
      

*****

  This article is divided into two parts; the first part states the content of general matter – energy interaction theory, the second part gives some consequences drawn from such theory.

A.  General matter – energy interaction theory

(Abbreviated as MEI, the first letter of Matter – Energy Interaction)

  I. Some assumptions

  While building a revolutionary model, theory or law, the authors usually give out initial assumptions, which is really the foundation to create massive works. MEI theory also needs such foundation – new and very important assumptions. Such assumption may be a concept, a principle or a condition. Here we need to get acquainted with new concepts and initial deductions.

  1. Basic matter constituent

  Scientific knowledge on matter constitution shows that: objects consist of elements which are composed by atoms; these atoms have the structure as planetary system in which the nucleus stays at the centre surrounded by electrons; atom nucleus consists of protons and neutrons; each proton (or neutron) is created by 3 quarks; quarks and electrons are classified as basic particles which cannot be divided.

  MEI theory is consistent with above terms and sentences, except the last one. According to MEI theory, electrons and quarks have clear and sophisticated constitution – this is an audacious but un-crazy viewpoint, it really has reasonable foundation. Let’s raise an evidence: if the quarks cannot be divided, why one neutron (constituted by 3 quarks: u-d-d) can be disintegrated into proton (constituted by 3 quarks: u-u-d) + electron + anti neutrino electron?

  As considered by MEI theory, there is a tiny basic matter element at the centre of each quark or electron. This quintessential matter element carries the information about electrical charge and mass of the particle. Basic matter element is constituted by basic matter constituents – which may be considered as fundamental matter constituent.

   Basic matter constituent is divided into two types, one of them carries the information about electrical charge ≈ + 13e and mass ≈ me/3 while the other one carries the information about electrical charge ≈ 13 e and mass ≈ me/3.

  Basic matter element carries the information about electrical charge and mass; therefore, it can create a microscopic electromagnetic field and microscopic gravitational field. These fields only affect a small distance equivalent to dimension of the atom and contribute much to the construction of atomic model. These microscopic fields have specific characteristics which are not similar to macroscopic electromagnetic field and macroscopic gravitational field which we’ve known. Macroscopic electromagnetic and gravitational fields are the amplifications of microscopic ones according to a perfect mechanism by using interactive quanta – this content will be mentioned in next sections. At tiny distance, basic matter elements carrying positive and negative charge do not attract or repel each other in the same way as the level of matter particles, they tend to cooperate and create harmonious and united microscopic electromagnetic field and microscopic gravitational field with a common centre of gravity. In case of being unable to cooperate in resonant way, they will be separated to transform into separate particles.

  When basic matter constituents (or basic matter elements) are connected according to a certain principle, their electrical charges and general masses will not always be equal to algebraic sum of separate constituents. When a matter particles moves, connection in basic matter element will also change to ensure the harmony and unity of microscopic electromagnetic field and microscopic gravitational field. Therefore, movement of matter particles may make their electrical charges and masses change.

  From above consideration, we can find out that: basic matter element at the centre of electron (may be called electron nucleus) is constituted by 3 basic matter constituents which have negative electrical charges. Position nucleus is constituted by 3 basic matter constituents which have positive charges. Quark nucleus is created by both basic matter constituents carrying negative and positive charges. Specific quantity of each type depends on electrical charge and mass of such quark. For example: nucleus of one quark with the mass of 6me and electrical charge of + 23e consists of 8 basic matter constituents of negative charges and 10 others of positive charges.

  Electron nucleus is created by 3 basic matter constituents of negative charges and of course, they must be arranged reasonably to ensure the harmony and unity of microscopic electromagnetic fields and microscopic gravitational fields, which makes electron independent, persistent and popular in reality.

  Quark nuclei consists of many basic matter constituents with positive and negative charges, they are hardly combined to form a harmonious and united microscopic electromagnetic field and microscopic gravitational field, which make it difficult for quark to exist independently in reality. However, quarks can cooperate with each other to form a larger particle such as proton or neutron. Because when some quarks cooperate with each other according to a close mechanism, harmonious and united microscopic electromagnetic field and microscopic gravitational field may be formed, so protons and neutrons are popular in reality. The idiom: “Together we can change the world” makes its wonderful significance here!

   2. Intermediate matter constituent

   According to MEI theory, intermediate matter constituents are very popular in the universe. Each of them is very small; they are present in each cell, each atom… around us, but it is very hard to define them by current scientific tools. There are no empty spaces, there are only spaces created by innumerable intermediate matter constituents which are arranged densely to form a network covering the general universe. The universe we’ve seen just consists of sets of celestial bodies (stars, planets, gas clouds…) which are combined with each other, it is only a part of general universe. Intermediate matter constituent occupies a great part in matter – energy density of general universe. Also in this viewpoint, intermediate matter constituents carry very small energy and can move in the space, intermediate matter constituents are attracted by microscopic gravitational fields created by basic matter elements while intermediate matter constituents repel each other to form a relatively uniform and widespread space. Due to the attraction of microscopic gravitational fields, the density of intermediate matter elements is higher where there are basic matter constituents.

Simulation of intermediate matter constituent network in the vacuum

 

Simulation of intermediate matter constituent network in the space around matter particle

 

   Because space is a matter – energy network, any matter particle, object or photon… creates its wave while it’s moving. Such wave is created by oscillation of intermediate matter constituents. So, any matter – energetic particle, while moving in the space, is obstructed by intermediate matter constituents, which prevents it from achieving faster speed than current light speed. The greater density of intermediate matter constituents is, the smaller maximal moving speed will be. If there is another form of space where there are no intermediate matter constituents, maximal moving speed of matter – energetic particles will be much higher than c (current light speed) .

  3. Interactive matter quantum

  Intermediate matter constituents do not play an important role as basic matter ones; however, in suitable conditions, they can be activated in a different way to transform into interactive matter quanta. According to MEI theory, when intermediate matter constituents get close to the centre of microscopic gravitational field which is created by matter particles, they will be infected by electromagnetic interaction, and when they get close to the centre of microscopic gravitational field, they will be infected by both gravitational and electromagnetic interaction. This way of “infection” may be similar to that of magnetically infected iron when it is close to a great enough magnetic field. In all such cases, intermediate matter constituents become interactive matter quanta. Interactive matter quanta are affected by microscopic gravitational and electromagnetic fields in a separate way, they do not transform into the constituents which carry information about electrical charge and mass as basic matter constituents. Interactive matter quanta always carry information about the fields generating them and can interact with microscopic gravitational and electromagnetic fields in other places under suitable conditions.

  4. Dynamic energetic constituent

  As understood in a simple way, energy is the thing, in spite of being stored in any form, that generates movement for objects when it is changed suitably. Energy is stored in matter particles where it is defined according to relation:   E = mc2. Another part of energy exists in dynamic form such as electromagnetic radiation, light, radio wave, thermal radiation…

  MEI theory divides energy of a matter particle into 2 types: controlling energy and overall energetic value. In order to make it easier to imagine about these 2 types of energy, let’s raise an example on a static matter particle (absolutely rest), then its controlling energy is 0 while its overall energetic value can still be defined according to relation:   E = mc2.   

  Controlling energy of a matter particle is a collective energy with the direction of all dynamic energetic constituents impacting such particle. This means energy also consists of a set of tiny energetic elements with specific direction – called dynamic energetic constituent. We can imagine dynamic energetic constituent as a tiny energetic arrow which has specific direction – it is represented by a vector. In free state, dynamic energetic constituent will move with a very great speed in specific direction. If its direction is modified by any reason, its moving direction will also change similarly – energetic arrow must move in the same direction as the arrow. Light photon consists of many dynamic energetic constituents with the same direction. Dynamic energetic constituent has a specific energetic value – very small – to characterize its magnitude. Such value is calculated in Joule (J).

  In a matter particle, dynamic energetic constituents – in spite of having different, or even opposite direction – exist together, they do not destroy or eliminate each other. Controlling energy of a dynamic energetic constituent group is defined similarly to mathematic vector summation.

  When a standing matter particle is impacted by a force with specific value and direction, some dynamic energetic constituents in the particle will be reversed to move the particle in the direction of impacting force.

  When a standing matter particle absorbs a bunch of dynamic energetic constituents which is great enough with the same direction, the interactive energy will transform into controlling energy and repel the particle in the direction similar to that of the dynamic energetic constituent. The higher value controlling energy has, the faster matter particle moves. Here we can see that controlling energy acts as a repulsion impacting matter particle and make it move. Controlling energy is expressed by kinetic energy.

   Overall energetic value of a matter particle is total value of all dynamic energies impacting such matter particle. Overall energy of matter particle does not mention the direction of dynamic energetic constituent.

  5. Assumption on structure of a matter particle.

  According to MEI theory, matter particles, even those which are as small as electron, have a characteristic constitution.

  a. Constitution of electron

   Electron is spherical with 3 parts:

   (1). Nucleus of electron at the centre is the basic matter element carrying information about electrical charge -e and mass me.

   (2). Energy band of electron is at the centre, it consists of many dynamic energetic constituents and its overall energetic value can be defined according to the relation: E = mc2.

   (3). Interactive matter quantum belt is located on the outermost and covers inner parts. There is a space buffer in which intermediate matter constituents are distributed in descending direction when the distance to electron nucleus is higher and higher.

   

   + Explanation on constitution of electron:

     Because electron nucleus carries the information about mass me, it attracts a corresponding surrounding energy. Thank to microscopic gravitational field, intermediate matter constituents is attracted to electron nucleus and transformed into interactive matter quantum. Harmony and unity between microscopic gravitational field and microscopic electromagnetic field of interactive matter quantum controlling electron generates a belt surrounding energy band.

  All other single-nucleus matter particles (one central nucleus only) have the same constitution as that of electron.

  b. Constitution of proton

  Proton is spherical and formed by close connection of 3 quarks, which make its constitution different from that of electron.

   (1) Three quark nuclei are closely connected to create the harmony and unity between microscopic gravitational field and microscopic electromagnetic field.

   (2) Each quark nucleus attracts a specific surrounding energy, value of such energy is equivalent to mass of the quark.

   (3) Common energy of the quarks. Total value of common energy and three private energies of the quarks is equal to overall energetic value of proton and can be defined according to the relation E = mc2.

   (4) Interactive matter quantum belt on the outermost covers all inner parts. There is a space buffer outside the belt where intermediate matter constituents are distributed in descending direction when their distance to proton nucleus is higher and higher.

  Constitution of other multiple nucleus particles can be deduced similarly to that of proton.

  II. Forms of microscopic and macroscopic interactions

    According to MEI theory, interaction transmitting mechanism between matter particles can be implemented according to one of three following directions:

    (1) Particle A transmits to Party B a quantum with specific energy, when particle B absorbs new additional energy, controlling energy in party B changes and state of particle B’s movement also changes.

    (2) Particle A directly or indirectly transmits interactive force to particle B, which reverses (or alternates) the direction of a specific number of dynamic energetic constituents in particle B to another specific direction, then changes controlling energy in particle B.

    (3) Particle A directly or indirectly transmits the interaction to particle B, stimulates particle B to absorb or emit an energetic quantum, which leads to the change of controlling energy in particle B.

    1. Microscopic gravitational interaction & microscopic electromagnetic interaction

  According to MEI theory, there must be microscopic gravitational interaction and microscopic electromagnetic interaction, although their magnitudes have not been defined yet, but they play important roles in generating atomic model.

  Microscopic gravitational interaction is the interaction between weighted particles (proton, neutron, electron...) and between weighted particles and intermediate matter constituents which takes place in atom-sized areas. Microscopic gravitational between particles is the direct gravitation on each other with the intensity depending on mass and distance – higher mass brings stronger interacting ability, smaller interaction distance brings greater gravitation.

  Microscopic electromagnetic interaction is the interaction between charged particles (proton, electron...) which takes place in atom-sized areas. Microscopic electromagnetic force between particles is the direct interacting force on each other with the intensity and direction depending on magnitudes and signs of interacting charges as well as the distance between them.

  Micro gravitational interaction and microscopic electromagnetic interaction is not totally independent on each other, they always tend to cooperate to form reasonable matter connection in each single particle (proton, neutron, electron...), in atomic nucleus and atomic model.

  2. Macroscopic gravitational interaction & macroscopic electromagnetic interaction

  Macroscopic gravitational interaction generates macroscopic interacting force. Macroscopic gravitational interaction creates generates macroscopic electromagnetic force.

  According to general matter – energy interaction theory (MEI), macroscopic gravitational and electromagnetic forces arise between weighted and charged matter particles because of interaction transmission through interactive matter quantum. Let’s consider an example on interaction transmission between two particles: proton and electron to illustrate this complex process.

  Due to the impact of microscopic gravitational field, interactive matter quanta of electron come toward the centre. These quanta have been infected by characteristics of microscopic gravitational field and microscopic electromagnetic field of electron. Interactive matter quanta inside the belt will exchange their energies with electron and after that, they are repelled from the electron in every direction. This process takes place with relatively high frequency, may be millions of cycles per second. Repelled interactive matter quanta move straight (in a stable space) with the speed equivalent to light speed (speed of interactive matter quanta may be higher than c). Very small size and 0 mass gives them high penetrating ability.

  Note that, interactive matter quanta repelled from electron are not weighted or charged but they are infected by electromagnetic and gravitational characteristics in a specific way. Because proton nuclei carry the information about electrical charge and mass, they generate microscopic gravitational and electromagnetic fields. When an interactive matter quantum originated from electron goes through proton, it cause gravitational interaction by reversing the direction of some dynamic energetic constituents in the proton to form a gravitation toward electron under the direction opposite to moving direction of interactive matter quantum. The gravitation caused by each interactive matter quantum depends on the level of infection by gravitational interaction of interactive matter quantum from electron as well as magnitude of microscopic gravitational field in the proton. In simpler words, such force depends on the mass of electron and proton. Electromagnetic interaction also takes place immediately by reversing some “energetic arrows”.  Direction of electromagnetic force also depends on the same or opposite in sign of two interacting particles as well as correlative movement between them. Charged particles with opposite in sign attract each other while charged particles with the same sign repel each other.

  Due to high penetrating ability, interactive matter quantum cause impacts on every matter particle on its moving line, that’s why gravitational and electromagnetic forces have widespread acting area in the space.

  According to MEI theory, value of gravitational force is suitable for Newton gravitation law, value of electromagnetic force is suitable for Lorentz electromagnetic force. However, because MEI theory considers oscillating matter – energy space, gravitational and electromagnetic interactions are quantized interactions, it is necessary to add some dependent interaction space coefficients into their calculation formula. Besides, impacts by moving state of interacting objects must also be considered. For example, in interaction space where the positions of intermediate matter constituents are stable, interaction space coefficient is 1. According to MEI theory, some parameters relate to macroscopic gravitational and electromagnetic interaction as follow: Radiation frequency of interactive matter quanta of all matter particles are the same. Radiation density on the surface of each particle and between matter particles is the same. Diameter of matter particles is directly proportional to square root of mass. Gravitational (or electromagnetic) interaction infection level of interactive matter quanta is directly proportional to the mass (or charge) and inversely proportional to radius square of the particle. “Force transmission” ability of an interactive matter quantum does not change by distance, which means that interactive matter quanta are not “denatured” while moving through different environments. This is because interactive matter quanta move fast while the particles are too small, particle penetrating period is long enough for interaction transmission only, there is not enough time to create changes on initially stored information.

   3. Interaction between intermediate matter constituents

  Intermediate matter constituents exist popularly in the space, they always directly repel each other in small-radius areas. Such repulsion depends on distance, the lower such distance is, the stronger repulsion will be and vice versa. Interactive matter quanta originate from intermediate matter constituents, so they also participate in this interaction.

   4. Interaction between the quarks in nucleon

  Interaction between quarks in a matter particle is also called strong interaction. According to MEI theory, strong interaction is a special form of the combination of microscopic gravitational interaction and microscopic electromagnetic interaction in a matter particle. In a multiple-nucleus particle, the quarks must regularly adjust the distance between them to create the unity between common microscopic gravitational field and microscopic electromagnetic field. Because there are many energy sources impacting the nucleon as well as the quarks from outside, which makes them far apart or deflects them and causes imbalance of microscopic fields. A quark may exchange its private energy with common energy of the nucleon then change its controlling energy in order to return to balanced, suitable position which is consistent with the other quarks.

  5. Interaction between nucleons in atomic nucleus

  Except for the nucleus of hydrogen atom which has only 1 proton, nuclei of other atoms consist of both +e charged proton and electrically neutral neutron. Nucleons of the nucleus connect to each other according to a certain principle to form balanced gravitational field and electromagnetic field as the basis for relatively stable rotational motion of electrons on the orbit layers. There are three forms of connection between the nucleons: proton - proton, proton - neutron, neutron - neutron. Simultaneously, there are also interactions between the nucleons, including:  microscopic gravitational interaction, macroscopic gravitation interaction, microscopic electromagnetic interaction and macroscopic electromagnetic interaction. Besides, due to microscopic gravitation, there are intermediate matter constituents with relatively high density in narrow space between the nucleons and around the nucleus. Gravitation between the nucleons and repulsion of intermediate matter constituents around the nucleus cause impact on the covering layers of nucleons which plays an important role in connecting the nucleons to fight against very strong electromagnetic interactions (repulsion) between protons.

  Not all atomic nuclei have the same sustainability, this depends on the number and constitution of connected nucleons. Unsustainably connected atomic nuclei are easily disintegrated into smaller matter particle groups but with higher stability (Disintegration of Urani nucleus is a typical example). And so do separate matter particles, unsustainably constituted particles are easily disintegrated into separate particle groups with higher sustainability. Easily disintegrated particle is the matter particle of which basic matter element at the centre is unsustainably constituted and can easily be impacted by external environment. For example, by comparing proton and neutron, we can see that in normal condition, proton is more sustainable than neutron. Neutron can easily be disintegrated into proton + electron + anti neutrino electron.

  6. Interaction between electron and atomic nucleus

  As we know, each atom has a positively-charged nucleus at its centre which is surrounded by moving electromagnetic orbit layers, the number of electron of such atom is corresponding to positive charge of the nucleus; so, generally, the atom is neutral in electrical charge.

  According to MEI theory, matter – energy interactions taking place inside the atom include: microscopic and macroscopic gravitational interactions, microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic interactions, interaction between matter particles and intermediate matter constituents and interaction among intermediate matter constituents.

   Because microscopic gravitation mainly concentrates at atomic nucleus, the density of intermediate matter constituents is not even: the areas near atomic nucleus have higher density. Considering the structure of atomic nucleus, we can see that: when positive charge of the nucleus increases, its mass will also increase correlatively. Therefore, nuclei with higher positive charge (or higher mass) have higher density of surrounding intermediate matter constituents.

   + Interaction between electrons is the atom: Above-mentioned constitution of electrons shows that all forms of interaction (as listed above) take place here. However, due to low mass, microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic interactions play the most important part, the electrons repel each other strongly, that’s why a reasonable minimal distance between them is usually ensured.

  + Interaction between nucleus and electron: Nucleus and electron also have all forms of interaction as listed above. We divide such interactions into gravitation and repulsion. Gravitation includes: microscopic and macroscopic gravitational interactions, microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic interactions. Repulsion occurs mainly between intermediate matter constituents around the nucleus impacting covering layer of electron’s interactive matter quantum. At far distance (equivalent to atomic radius), gravitation between electron and nucleus is higher than the repulsion impacting electron, so the electron is not repelled from the atom. When electrons get closer to the centre, gravitation between them and the nucleus increases, but the repulsion by intermediate matter constituents to electrons increases even faster, and it will be greater than the gravitation at a certain distance; therefore, electrons can only move on orbit layers which are far from the nucleus at a certain distance, they cannot be attracted to the nucleus.

 

  B. Some consequences

  There must be many consequences drawn from general matter – energy interaction theory, here we just mention some of them.

  I. Defining size of microscopic matter particles

  According to MEI theory, independent microscopic matter particles are spherical and different particles have different radii according to square root of mass. So, if masses of two particles and diameter of bigger particle are available, it is possible to calculate the radius of small particle.

  For example, we can calculate radius of electron when its mass, mass and radius of proton are given. Assume that mass of the proton is 1836 me, and its radius is 0.8768 fm we may calculate radius of the electron: 0.02046 fm (1fm = 10−15 m).

  II. The nature of inertia

  In mechanics, mass of an object characterizes its inertial level – which means that objects with higher mass will have higher “inert level” and stronger impacting force will be needed to transfer it to expected moving state. The relationship between force and movement acceleration of an object is stated in Newton law II:  {\vec  F}=m{\vec  a} .

   Now we apply MEI theory to study the nature of inertia. As known, an object is constituted by countless number of microscopic particles such as proton, electron and neutron, mass of the object is equal to total mass of all constituents. According to MEI theory, radius of a microscopic particle in proportional to square root of particle mass, so both surface area and intersection area of the particle are proportional to its mass. Refer to structural diagram of microscopic particle, we can see that outer cover of the particle is an interactive matter quantum belt. These interactive matter quanta are formed by transformed intermediate matter constituents, and they also have repulsive interaction with intermediate matter constituents in surrounding space. So, it’s clear that there is a space pressure impacting on the surface of microscopic particle, it tends to maintain situation of the particle – generate inert level, the particles with higher mass will have higher inert level. In order to transfer a particle to expected moving state, it is necessary to provide it with energy or cause an certain force on it, the relationship between acceleration – mass – impacting force complies following principle: movement acceleration is directly proportional to impacting force and inversely proportional to mass of the particle.

   III. Explanation on substance constitution principle

  In secondary mechanics, we’ve learned about substance constitution. Substances (solid, liquid, gas) are constituted by small molecules (or atoms), the distance between molecules (or atoms) decides the state of such substance. Distance between molecules of solid is smaller than that of liquid, distance between molecules of liquid is smaller than that of gas.

   Now let’s discuss more about solid. Although molecules of solid always oscillate due to thermal movement, they are maintained at balanced position only. Average distance between solid molecules is approximate to their molecular diameter (symbolized as d). There are always gravitation and repulsion between the molecules, when they’re far from each other, gravitational force is higher than repulsive force and when they’re close to each other, repulsive force is higher than gravitational force, so when the distance between solid molecules is equal to d, the solid is in stable state.

  The above contents are logical, but they’re not very clear: why are we not explained where gravitational force and repulsive force come from? However, by applying MEI theory, we will get the reasonable answer. Basing on substance constitution and forms of interaction in MEI theory, gravitational forces between molecules are mainly microscopic gravitational forces while repulsive forces include two parts: (1) repulsive interacting force between intermediate matter constituents on the cover of matter particle in each molecule and (2) repulsive interacting force between intermediate matter constituents located between 2 molecules impacting on their covers.

   From substance constitution principle (specifically, the solid), we understand more about transmission mechanism of impacting force between two objects. When two objects impact each other, contiguous molecules of them will get close to and repel each other, this repulsive force is transmitted from one molecule to another molecule of both objects then generates movement or deforms the objects.

   IV. Explanation on elliptical orbit of planets around the star

  Astronomical observations show that most of planets move around the star in elliptical orbit, this is relatively similar to Kepler law on movement of celestial bodies. Now we will apply MEI theory to explain such popular phenomenon.

   As we know, beside movement of planets around the star, such planetary system also moves around the galaxy, participates in the movement of galactic groups and the whole universe. So, movement orbit of a star in the universe will be a helical curve. If we just consider this in the scope of galaxy, movement orbit of a star is a big ellipse with the distance to galactic centre calculated by light-year (even thousands of light-year) and moving speed of about 220 km/s. When we consider in the scope of planetary system, movement orbit of a star is almost a line.

   Movement of a planet around a star (observing from the star) is established by two factors: initial velocity vector of the planet and gravitational force from the star. Movement of the planet is also bear gravitational interactions from the star or other planets, but these interactions are usually small. Therefore, according to classical mechanics, movement orbit of the planets around a star in stable state is almost a circle of which the centre is located at the star. However, this is not true in fact.

   According to MEI theory, gravitational interaction is formed through intermediate particles. The quanta transmitting gravitational interaction move in the space with light speed.  So gravitational interacting quanta from the star must spend a certain period to reach the planet. Besides, most of these interacting quanta move in clear space without being involved in the movement of planetary system. While gravitational interacting quanta come to the planet from the star, such star also moves through a section of its orbit. In below figure, if current position of the star is A, gravitational force by the star to the planet must be initiated from position B. If we stop analyzing here, movement orbit of the planets around the star must still be circle, but its centre is not located at the star, the centre is deflected to a distance from the position of observer on the star.

   But in fact, orbit of the planets around the star is an ellipse, which means that above analysis is not enough, there must be other reasons.

   As we know, the stars and planets also rotate around their own axes. Interactive quantum moving in the space must have wave form (which is not totally similar to electromagnetic wave), its movement may be refracted while going from one space environment to another. So moving path of gravitational interacting quantum may be represented by 3 broken lines, equivalent to 3 different movement environments including: space environment in effective area of the star, clear space environment and space environment in effective area of the planet. Therefore, directions of general gravitation from the star to the planets (when the planet moves) do not pass a common centre point, which makes the angle formed by gravitation vector and movement velocity vector of the planets change continuously.

   Combining all above analyses, we can explain why movement orbit of the planets around a star is elliptical.

   About different eccentricities between elliptical orbits of the planets (eccentric position), this is because the factors relating to speed, self-rotating direction of the star and planets are different; moreover, their matter – space constitution forms are different, too. This may change the direction of gravitational force from the star to the planets.

 

   V. The nature of neutrino

  Neutrino existing popularly in the universe is neutrino electron (symbolized as νe). They are created by natural or artificial nuclear synthesis or disintegration. Helium nuclear synthesis at the centre of the sun and stars releases particle νe, so the number of neutrino being transmitted in the space is very great. Helium nuclear synthesis reaction can be expressed by following diagram: 4p → He + 2e+ + 2 νe. This nuclear synthesis process also releases relatively great energy which is usually radiated as light.

  During Helium nuclear synthesis from 4 Hydrogen nuclei (proton), nuclear reaction is basically disintegrating of proton to neutron + antielectron + νe .Now we apply MEI theory to analyze this proton disintegration reaction in order to find out the nature of neutrino.

   Proton is formed by 3 quarks including 2 quarks u and 1 quark d, while neutron is formed by 2 quarks d and 1 quark u. Quark u has electrical charge of + 23e while that of quark d is - 13e. Therefore, during proton disintegration, 1 quark u is divided into 1 antielectron + 1 quark d, other quarks are still maintained. After dividing, antielectron is pushed out with high speed. Before leaving, antielectron collides interactive matter quantum belt of proton and breaks a small piece of such belt. Graft of such interactive matter constituents is also pushed out with the antielectron – that is neutrino electron.

   According to MEI theory, neutrino is formed by a group of interactive matter quanta on the cover of disintegrated matter particles – in other words: neutrino is by-product of big particle disintegration.

   Some published actual researching results show that: neutrinos’ speed is equal to light-speed with no mass (or very small mass), they hardly interact with normal matter particles and especially, they have very strong penetrating ability.

  However, neutrinos only collide or avoid matter particles such as proton, neutron or electron while they are moving, they cannot penetrate such particles like interactive matter quanta because the dimension of neutrino may be million (or even billion) times bigger than that of interactive matter quantum.

  From above proton disintegration model, we can make similar inferences on the disintegration of neutron (into proton + electron + anti neutrino electron). The process shows that: Quarks of the same kind (quark u or quark d) may not be identical. For example, two quarks d certainly have the same electrical charge (- 13e) but their masses may be different because their nuclei have different constitutions (nuclei of two quarks may be different by 1 or some couples of basic matter constituents are opposite in sign). Then, protons or neutrons are not identical, either – their electrical charge is the same but their masses are a little different. Through this decision, we can explain why total mass of an atom is not totally equivalent to the number and elements of its constituents. For example, a Nitrogen atom consists of 7 protons + 7 electron + 7 neutron, equal to a half of a Silicon atom (14 proton + 14 electron + 14 neutron); however, the mass of Nitrogen atom = 14.007u  which is not equal to a half of Silicon atom (28.085u) ; u = 1/12 mass of atom C12. Explaining by this way, once again, MEI theory is not consistent with current physics: according to MEI theory, it is because protons (and neutrons) in the atoms are not totally identical while current physics claims that it is originated by the difference between connecting energy in atomic nucleus and the protons (and neutrons) are totally identical.

  VI. Prediction on the constitution of dark matter

  Dark matter is a general concept used to refer to black holes and other similar forms of matters which can be predicted by the science basing on physical phenomena unobservable by current optical instruments like normal matters.

  According to MEI theory, operational principle of atomic model will have many changes in comparison to current scientific knowledge. There are following interactions in the space of an atom: microscopic gravitational interaction, microscopic electromagnetic interaction, macroscopic gravitational interaction and macroscopic electromagnetic interaction. Moreover, there are also interactions among intermediate matter constituents and between them and matter particle. Combination of such interactions creates an atomic model on which electrons move around the nucleus on relatively stable orbit layers. In the scope of gas clouds, objects or even a normal planet, atomic density is not high, atomic model still exists and are expression of normal matter forms.

   When many normal matter blocks are connected by microscopic gravitational force, a very big matter block will be generated with strong gravitational force which makes the atoms get closer and high atomic density. Generated energy increases the temperature and promotes the combination of atomic nuclei which takes place in a long period in order to form bigger nuclei.

   Space in the atom fluctuates remarkably due to the movement of intermediate matter constituent flows from outside to the centre of the matter block. Strong fluctuation in atomic space may lead to uncontrolled movement of electrons on normal orbits. Normal atomic model can collapse, electrons are attracted closer to atomic nucleus and move around it at a very small distance. Then normal big matter block is transformed into dark matter.

  Dark matter can absorb and reflect electromagnetic waves transmitted from other places. Dark matter can emit electromagnetic radiations itself with low intensity. However, the space outside dark matter fluctuates much stronger than that of normal matter due to fast inward movement of intermediate matter constituent flows and outward interactive matter quantum flows with high density. Thus, electromagnetic radiation emitted from dark matter will be diffused to every direction (photons may even be torn off), density of the radiations which can reach the earth is very small and hardly be recognized by current optical instruments.

  We can see that whatever nuclei included in the matters at black hole, basic charged elements of the black hole (or dark matter in common) are electrons and protons with similar quantity. Therefore, in general, black holes are balanced on electrical charge.

  Because electrons are many times smaller than nucleus structures in the black holes; simultaneously, under strong impact of axial macroscopic gravitational force, electrons tend to get closer to the centre of black hole following narrow space interspersed between the nuclei. Therefore, black hole core has more electron proton; and on the outside (far from the centre) of the black hole, the density of protons is higher than that of electrons, that’s why core of the black hole has negative charge while the outside has positive charge.

  VII. Explanation on expansion acceleration of the universe which rejects the existence of dark energy

1.     Expansion inside the galaxy

  As considered by current physics, there is a black hole which is million or even billion times bigger than the sun at the centre of each galaxy. Besides, dark matters can also be distributed sparsely on different orbits interspersed with normal matters in the galaxy. Gravitational force between the black hole and set of surrounding stars keep the galaxy stable over time.

  According to MEI theory, gravitational force is generated by intermediate interaction transmission through interactive matter quantum. Interactive matter quantum has strong but limited penetrating ability. On the other hand, density of matters at the core becomes higher than that of the outside of black hole over time. This leads to two consequences for the centre of black hole: first, intermediate matter constituents outside the black hole hardly moves the centre of black hole , which causes lack of interactive matter quanta; second, a remarkable number of interactive matter quanta at the centre of  black hole cannot penetrate to escape from the black hole. Therefore, since the black hole is created, gravitational force between it and the stars (and planets, gas clouds…) decreases over time – of course, it must decreases slowly; that’s why in each galaxy, movement orbits of the stars tend to get further from the centre.

2.     Expansion acceleration of the universe  

   Gravitational force is the glue that connects the galaxies in immense universe, mass of a galaxy concentrates at the centre of black hole, so gravitational force between the black holes plays the most important role.

  Above contents show that density of the matters at the core becomes higher and higher than that of the outside of black hole; therefore, a remarkable part of interactive matter quanta at the centre cannot penetrate central area of the black hole and gravitational forces between black holes decrease over time.

  We know that interactive matter quanta transmit not only gravitational force but also electromagnetic force between matter particles. Density of electrons at the centre is higher than that of the outside of black hole, so the centre has negative charge while the outside has positive charge.

  Two above reasons lead to an important conclusion: although black holes are generally balanced on electrical charge, electromagnetic force between two black holes is not zero, repulsive force becomes stronger and stronger. Such repulsive force is generated because interaction between positive charges of two black holes predominates over other electromagnetic interactions.

  Now following final conclusions can be deducted:

  + If gravitational attracting force between two black holes is greater than electromagnetic repelling force between them, expansion speed of the universe will become slower and slower.

  + If gravitational attracting force between two black holes is equal to electromagnetic repelling force between them, expansion speed of the universe will be stable over time.

  + If gravitational attracting force between two black holes is greater than electromagnetic repelling force between them, expansion speed of the universe will become higher and higher.

  According to astrophysics, the universe we observe was created 13.8billion years ago. In which, before year 7 billion, expansion speed of the universe was slowed down while since year 7 billion, the universe has been expanded faster and faster. Thus, on the viewpoint of MEI theory, in year 7 billion, gravitational attracting force between black holes was equal to electromagnetic repelling force between them; before year 7 billion, gravitational attracting force between black holes was greater than electromagnetic repelling force between them; and since year 7 billion, gravitational attracting force between black holes has been smaller than electromagnetic repelling force between them. This conclusion of MEI theory also rejects the existence of “dark energy” in the universe as a “mysterious power” which accelerates expansion speed of the universe as predicted by the astrophysicists.